Mini gastric bypass surgery is one of the surgical procedures applied within the scope of obesity treatment. It is a method that is frequently applied to people who have overweight problems due to its effects on weight loss in a controlled and healthy way. Mini gastric bypass surgery may also be beneficial in preventing secondary health problems caused by obesity.
Mini gastric bypass is the easiest, most quickly completed, and most cost-effective bariatric surgery procedure with the shortest hospitalization. With mini gastric bypass surgery, it is possible to achieve weight loss as a result of standard bypass surgeries. Of course, for this, mini gastric bypass surgery must be performed correctly on the right patient. Mini gastric bypass has a high control power for health problems such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, which are among the leading findings related to metabolic syndrome.
What is Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery?
Today, being overweight is one of the most important causes of various health problems experienced by individuals. People who want to get rid of their excess weight may not be able to achieve the targeted weight loss, even if they regularly follow a diet and do exercise. Various surgical procedures may be applied to obese patients who have problems due to their excess weight and consequently have secondary health problems. One of them is mini gastric bypass surgery.
Since mini gastric bypass surgery is one of the most effective methods for the treatment of obesity, it is frequently used within the scope of metabolic surgery procedures. Weight loss after mini gastric bypass surgery is achieved with three different effects of the surgery.
The first of these is the reduction of stomach volume. Reducing the stomach volume means that the food portions are also reduced. Since the volume restriction is strong, it is eaten more often but less frequently.
Another effect of mini gastric bypass surgery is the restriction of absorption. Accordingly, an approximately 200 cm section at the beginning of the small intestine is separated from the food passage. The separated part undertakes the task of carrying bile and other fluids that provide nerve and absorption. Food passes through the small stomach and is transferred to the middle of the small intestine and meets the bile. Thus, absorption starts after the first 200 cm.
Food is not absorbed from the small intestine because food does not pass through the 200 cm distance at the beginning of the small intestine. Thus, the excess calories taken are removed from the body without being absorbed. The absorption-restricting effect is beneficial in increasing the weight lost and maintaining the achieved weight loss for a long time.
With the applications performed within the scope of mini gastric bypass surgery, most of the stomach remains passively inside. Consumed food does not pass into this part of the stomach. This also means that the relevant part is not stimulated by food and loses its effectiveness over time. Thus, the hunger hormone secreted from this part of the stomach is also partially reduced. When the secretion of the hunger hormone Ghrelin decreases, the feeling of fullness is reached earlier and long-lasting.
Who is Eligible for Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery?
As is the case with other bariatric surgery procedures, mini gastric bypass surgery is not applicable to every patient. The suitability of the patients who will undergo mini gastric bypass surgery should be given individually as a result of the evaluations made.
While evaluating suitability for mini gastric bypass surgery, factors such as age, body mass index, whether there are metabolic diseases accompanying obesity, the condition of the small intestines, and the presence of reflux and hernia are evaluated.
Mini gastric bypass surgery can be applied to people:
- Who are between the ages of 18 and 65;
- Who have no obstacle to the operation;
- Who have a body mass index of 35 and above;
- Whose body mass index is between 30 and 35, but who have health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, heart failure, sleep apnea, and metabolic syndrome due to their excess weight;
- Who cannot achieve the desired weight loss despite various methods applied for weight loss.
In cases where the patient is under the age of 18 or over the age of 65, a decision can be made on whether they are suitable for surgery after the evaluations made specifically for the patient.
How Long Does Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery Take?
Performed with the laparoscopic method, mini gastric bypass surgery is performed within an average of one hour. After the operation, the patient does not need a long recovery period. In addition, there is no deep incision and scarring or pain.
Since mini gastric bypass surgery is performed with the laparoscopic method, a fast and healthy recovery process can be experienced if the doctor’s recommendations are followed. After mini gastric bypass surgery, patients are kept under observation in the hospital for a few days and are discharged if there is no problem.
After the surgery, patients usually return to their daily lives after the first week. After the surgery, it is generally recommended to walk for an average of 20 minutes per day. One should be careful during physical activities for a month, and activities that may cause strain should be avoided. There is a nutrition program that patients must follow meticulously after discharge.
After mini gastric bypass surgery, the diet is started with liquid. Then, nutrition in the form of puree is started. If there is no problem in these stages, solid food consumption is gradually started in the last stage. It is important to strictly follow the rules specified by the doctor during the diet.
In order to avoid problems such as malnutrition after surgery, B12 and vitamin D, calcium, iron and phosphate deficiencies should be checked regularly. If a deficiency is detected, it may be necessary to take supplements.
In order to minimize the risk of dumping syndrome after gastric bypass surgery, sugary foods and beverages should be avoided. Food should be chewed for a long time and eaten slowly. In addition, liquids should not be consumed with meals. The liquid should be consumed 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after meals.
Mini Gastric Bypass Before & After Gallery
How is Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery Performed?
Mini gastric bypass surgery can be defined as a malabsorptive surgical procedure that reduces stomach volume and food absorption from a part of the small intestines. Due to the completely closed method, it does not require large incisions in the abdomen.
Mini gastric bypass surgery is performed by making 5 to 6 incisions, all under 1 cm. A camera and instruments to be used during the surgery are inserted into the abdomen through the incisions made. The camera and surgical instruments to be used during the surgery should be of appropriate size and thickness to pass through the incisions made. In other words, all of the cameras and tools used are specially produced for this purpose.
As part of the surgery, a small gastric sleeve is created at the entrance of the stomach to completely separate the stomach from the rest. After the surgery, a new stomach piece is used, which is made into a small gastric sleeve. Within the scope of a mini gastric bypass, it is not possible to cut and remove any organ. As a result of the procedures, most of the stomach remains in the abdomen and continues to produce its secretions.
The small stomach formed during the surgery is connected to the small intestine, and the food is passed to the intestines. In this second part of the surgery, a small incision is made into the stomach created. Accordingly, the connection to the stomach is made from a place close to the middle of the small intestine, bypassing the approximately two-meter section at the beginning of the small intestine.
The stomach and small intestine connection is usually made using special staples. The stomach and intestine are adhered to each other by closing the stomach and intestine, which are side by side, but it is possible to create a space between them. This connection is called anastomosis, and the process of joining the stomach and intestine can be done with stitches. The risk of leakage is minimized as there will be no weak or loose area when the anastomosis is performed with hand suturing.
Is Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery Risky?
Bile reflux into the stomach comes first among the possible risks after mini gastric bypass surgery. Although it is a rare problem, it can become a factor that negatively affects the patient’s quality of life. In order to reduce or eliminate the amount of reflux, the part of the intestine that brings bile secretion to the anastomosis is connected from the top to the bottom, and an inclination is provided to continue the bile flow in the small intestine without passing into the stomach. Other factors affecting bile reflux include the person’s current position and the characteristics of the food consumed.
A gastric ulcer may be observed in patients with prolonged bile reflux. Although it is a rare condition, it can be observed in the anastomosis line. If the condition, which needs to be followed up by taking gastric protective drugs and using regular endoscopic control, does not improve within 2-3 months, surgery may arise.
In order to reduce the risk of dumping syndrome after mini gastric bypass surgery, it is necessary to avoid carbohydrate consumption. Foods containing white flour and starch should be avoided. This includes white bread, lavash, pita bread, pasta, rice, pastries, and many other foods.
In addition, the risks of mini gastric bypass surgery include insufficient or excessive weight loss, vitamin and mineral deficiency due to reduced absorption, diarrhea due to shortening of the intestinal distance, vomiting, nausea, fistula, osteoporosis, and partial or complete intestinal obstruction caused by intra-abdominal adhesions.